Tue. Jul 5th, 2022

In antiquity, there were three primary divisions of the Roman Empire. These were the Western Roman Empire, which became the Holy Roman Empire; the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire; and the Gallic-Roman empires. The Western Roman Empire eventually collapsed and the territories of the Gallic Roman empires were conquered by Germanic tribes, as well as by the Moors and Slavs.
However, the Northern Roman Empire continued to exist after the Barbarian invasions and eventually a Germanic king of France, called Charles the Great or Charlemagne conquered most of Gaul and made it part of his new empire. His descendants would rule France until 1328.
After this point, Western Europe fell into a period of chaos known as the Dark Ages. The Roman Catholic Church, which had been in decline since the 4th century because of barbarian invasions and doctrinal disputes, became the only unifying force in Western Europe and as a result became extremely powerful and wealthy.
In 733 AD, Charles’ descendants were defeated by Muslim invaders from Africa. Once this occurred, Islam began to become the dominant religion in Southern Europe.

why did justinian i fail to regain all of the former provinces of the old roman empire?
why did justinian i fail to regain all of the former provinces of the old roman empire?

Crisis, Recovery, & Renaissance: How the Byzantine Empire Survived for 900 Years

The Byzantine Empire was the only surviving division of the Roman Empire. In the year 1204, after over three centuries of rule, Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks. The Ottomans had been expanding their empire eastward into Europe and with this conquest they effectively ended any possibility that the Byzantine Empire would continue to exist as an independent entity. The Byzantine Empire was the only surviving division of the Roman Empire. The Byzantine (Eastern) or Greek-speaking portion of the Empire, recovered from its long period of crisis and revolt; a time during which its territory was conquered by Slavic peoples, such as Bulgaria and Serbia. The Latin or Western part declined in power and collapsed under Germanic pressure, while a third part survived as a vassal state until conquered by the Ottoman Turks.
The Byzantine Empire survived and grew under the rule of Justinian I and his successors. The 18 th century was a time of great changes, both in Europe and in the Byzantine Empire. The scholarly work of Sir Thomas Gray, Sir Thomas Browne, David Hume and Adam Smith started the Enlightenment. A religious movement called the Catholic Enlightenment took place during this period. Platonism was revived. In contrast to Enlightenment ideas coming from the west, Ottoman Turks were using state-sponsored terror against Christians.
Europe and the Byzantine Empire continued to grow and influence world events. The amazing story of the Byzantines as they endured through such a horrific series of events while developing one of the largest, most powerful, and most in-demand empires in history is an amazing tale of resilience.

why did justinian i fail to regain all of the former provinces of the old roman empire?
why did justinian i fail to regain all of the former provinces of the old roman empire?

Glorious Reigns, Great Emperors & Unsolved Mysteries: The Rise and Fall of Byzantium

The Empire was at the height of its power when in the early 1100s, Emperor Alexios I Komnenos launched a war against the Seljuk Turks. In fact, during this time, the Byzantine Empire was probably stronger and more influential than it ever had been. But as with all great empires, it eventually began to decline. The Byzantine Empire was a political entity that was dominated by Christians who spoke Greek. The Byzantine Empire was born in the 4th century AD, at the end of a long period of civil war in the Roman Empire. It would last until the 15th century when it was conquered by the Ottoman Turks. In 1204, Constantinople, or Byzantium as it was once called, fell to the Crusaders, who pillaged and sacked it; this was the end of 1204, and ironically, it marked the end of the Byzantine Empire.
Christianity itself was born in the 3rd century, when it started as a religious movement among a number of early Christians. It gradually became an established religion which began to see its influences spread across the globe, especially after missionaries spread Christianity to Europe and North America. By the sixth century however, Christianity was almost completely dominant throughout Western Europe and North Africa. Christianity was also spreading in Central Asia and the Middle East, but remained in a state of relative separation from the rest of the world. It would not become established in China or Japan until hundreds of years after its birth. Christianity had been brought to Asia by missionaries during the early centuries, but it was not until the 16th century that it really began to take root throughout Asia.

why did justinian i fail to regain all of the former provinces of the old roman empire?
why did justinian i fail to regain all of the former provinces of the old roman empire?

Timeline of Byzantine History

The Byzantine Empire expanded to many areas of the Far East and Western Asia, part of its success due to the military leadership of Alexios I Komnenos. In 1081, Alexios was crowned emperor by the Patriarch of Constantinople who had been sent on a diplomatic mission to the Holy Roman Emperor, Barbarossa (who was known as “the Red Beard”). The Byzantine Empire conquered most of Sicily in the 11th century, and then moved on to conquer parts of southern Italy. The Empire also controlled most of Greece, Bulgaria, Romania and northern Syria. In the 12th century, despite military setbacks and internal revolts, the Empire was still considered to be one of the greatest political forces in Europe. It was regarded by historians as the “Last World Empire,” but would not last much longer. The Crusaders of the First Crusade sacked its capital city, Rome. By 1453, Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul), the last outpost of the Eastern Roman Empire, would fall to the Ottoman Turks under Sultan Mehmed II (known as “The Conqueror”) in a siege that lasted 6 months.
Byzantine possessions at their height. Yellow shows imperial territories, purple shows conquests and red shows the areas occupied by other states. Crimea is not on this map.

why did justinian i fail to regain all of the former provinces of the old roman empire?
why did justinian i fail to regain all of the former provinces of the old roman empire?